Latin dance is a vibrant and expressive form of dance that has gained immense popularity around the world. Its energy, flair, and sensuality have captured the hearts of millions of people who enjoy dancing and music. When it comes to Latin dance, there are several unique styles that stand out, with Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue being the most notable. Each dance style has its own distinct character, rhythm, and technique that make it unique. In this article, we will explore the differences between these three dance styles, including their origins, basic steps, music, and cultural significance. Whether you are an aspiring dancer, a music lover, or a curious enthusiast, this guide will help you understand the beauty and diversity of Latin dance.
A Brief Overview of Latin Dance
Latin dance is a broad term that encompasses various dance styles that originated in Latin America and the Caribbean. These dance styles are known for their energetic and sensual movements, infectious rhythms, and colorful costumes.
The Evolution of Latin Dance: Latin dance has evolved over the years as a result of different cultural influences such as African, European, and Indigenous American. It was initially developed as a form of expression for social, religious, and cultural events. Today, Latin dance is popular globally and has become a way of life for many people.
Latin Dance Styles: There are over 10 different styles of Latin dance, each with its own unique characteristics and flavor. Some of the most popular Latin dance styles include Salsa, Bachata, Merengue, Tango, Cha Cha, Rumba, and Samba among others. Each style has its own signature moves and music, making it easy to identify.
The Popularity of Latin Dance: The popularity of Latin dance can be attributed to its numerous benefits to the body and mind. Dancing has a positive impact on physical fitness, mental health, and social interaction. In Latin America, it is a way of life and is celebrated in festivals and competitions.
The Significance of Latin Dance in Latin America: Latin dance is a significant aspect of Latin American culture, and it is deeply rooted in the people’s everyday lives. It provides an avenue for the expression of emotions, feelings, and experiences, making it an essential part of their identity. Many dances have stories and meanings that preserve their cultural heritage.
The Role of Music: Music plays a vital role in Latin dance as each style has its music following specific rhythms, beats, and melodies. The perfect selection of music can enhance and complement the dance, creating a harmonious and captivating experience for the dancers and audience alike.
The Importance of Technique: Technique plays a significant role in Latin dance, as it determines the accuracy and precision of the movements. Perfecting the technique requires dedicated practice, and it’s essential for the dancer to have excellent control of their body movement, balance, coordination, and timing.
Choosing the Right Shoes: When it comes to Latin dance, shoes are just as important as the technique. Proper dance shoes provide the necessary support, flexibility, and grip to perform the dance steps correctly.
Latin dance is a diverse and exciting dance style that has deep roots in Latin American culture. It has evolved over the years to become a popular global dance style, celebrated for its energetic movements and infectious rhythms. From the music to the technique, everything about Latin dance is vibrant and unique, expressing the vibrant culture of Latin America.
The Popularity of Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue
The Popularity of Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue
Latin dance has gained immense popularity in recent years, and among the various styles, salsa, bachata, and merengue have become some of the most beloved. One reason for their rise in popularity is the infectious music that accompanies each dance style. Salsa is known for its lively beats and infectious rhythms that make it impossible not to move your feet. Bachata, characterized by its romantic melodies and sensual movements, has also gained a large following. And merengue, with its fast-paced tempo and simple steps, has become a staple at parties and social events.
Another reason for the popularity of these dance styles is their accessibility. Unlike some other dance styles that require years of training and practice, salsa, bachata, and merengue are relatively easy to learn and can be enjoyed by dancers of all skill levels. This accessibility has also led to the incorporation of these styles into fitness routines, as they provide a fun and engaging way to stay in shape.
The cultural significance of these dances cannot be overlooked. Salsa, bachata, and merengue are deeply rooted in the traditions and history of Latin America, and have become a way for people to connect with their heritage and culture. This is why, in many countries, these dance styles are an integral part of national identity and are celebrated through festivals and competitions.
Salsa, bachata, and merengue have gained popularity due to their infectious music, accessibility, and cultural significance. They have become a way for people to connect with one another, stay active, and celebrate their heritage. If you want to learn more about the evolution of Latin dance or how to perfect your technique, check out these Latin dance evolution, perfect Latin dance technique tips and tricks, and 10 Latin dance styles. Or, if you’re interested in the cultural significance of Latin dance or the benefits for body and mind, explore the cultural significance of Latin dance in Latin America or benefits of Latin dance for body and mind. Additionally, if you’re looking for the perfect pair of shoes for your next Latin dance class or competition, check out Latin dance shoes.
Salsa Dance Style
When it comes to Latin dance, Salsa is often one of the first styles that comes to mind. Salsa dancing combines elements of Afro-Cuban dance and jazz, with a mix of other Latin American styles. It’s a lively and energetic dance style, with many twists and turns. Salsa has become increasingly popular around the world, with salsa clubs and dance classes popping up in many cities. To truly understand the essence of salsa dancing, let’s dive into its origins, characteristics, basic steps and movement, and popular salsa music. If you’re interested in the role of music in Latin dance, check out our article on how to choose the right songs.
Origins and Characteristics of Salsa
Origins and Characteristics of Salsa
Salsa originated in the 1970s in New York City, where Latin American immigrants fused traditional Cuban and Puerto Rican rhythms with jazz and other American styles, creating a new genre of music and dance.
Some of the key characteristics of salsa include its energetic and upbeat tempo, typically ranging from 150 to 250 beats per minute. Salsa music often features a call-and-response pattern between the lead singer and the instruments, including trumpets, bongos, and congas.
Salsa dance is known for its fluid movements and improvisation, with partners often performing intricate footwork, turns, and spins. The basic step involves taking three steps to the beat of the music and then pausing for one beat. Salsa is also characterized by its emphasis on the downbeat, with dancers pausing and accenting the first beat of each measure.
Salsa has become a popular dance style worldwide, with many dance studios and competitions dedicated to the genre. Some famous salsa dancers, such as Eddie Torres and Griselle Ponce, have made significant contributions to the development and promotion of salsa dance.
Basic Steps and Movement
Basic Steps and Movement
Salsa is a fast-paced dance style that utilizes quick steps and fluid movements. The basic salsa step consists of taking three steps in each direction, with a pause on the fourth beat. Partners face each other and move in a circular motion, with the lead partner guiding the steps. The dancer’s hips and arms move in sync with the beat of the music.
Bachata is a sensual dance style that involves close partner coordination and intricate footwork. The basic bachata step consists of a side-to-side movement, with a tap and a hip swivel on the fourth beat. Partners move in a more linear fashion than in salsa, with the lead partner guiding the movement. Bachata dancers often make use of sensual body movements, including hip and shoulder isolations.
Merengue is a fun and upbeat dance style that features a basic two-step movement. Partners stand facing each other and move their hips and shoulders in a synchronized motion. The lead partner initiates the movement, with the follower mirroring their steps. Merengue is a relatively simple dance style, making it a popular choice for beginners.
Each dance style features unique movements and styles that help it stand out from the others. Whether you prefer the quick and lively pace of salsa, the sensual movements of bachata, or the fun, upbeat vibe of merengue, there’s a Latin dance style out there for everyone.
Learning more about the history of Latin dance can help dancers better understand the cultural significance of each style, while studying the techniques and contributions of famous Latin dancers can provide inspiration for mastering new moves.
Popular Salsa Music
Salsa music is a key element in salsa dancing. It is a fusion of African, European, and Caribbean rhythms, with a strong beat and lively tempo. The music of salsa is so infectious that it often elicits an almost irresistible urge to dance. Some of the most popular and well-known salsa songs include:
|El Cantante||Marc Anthony|
|Valió la Pena||Marc Anthony|
|Vivir Mi Vida||Marc Anthony|
|La Vida es un Carnaval||Celia Cruz|
|Son de la Loma||Buena Vista Social Club|
|Oye Como Va||Tito Puente|
These songs are often played at salsa clubs, parties, and events, and are beloved by salsa enthusiasts around the world. The lyrics of salsa songs often reflect themes of love, passion, and celebration of life.
Many famous Latin dancers have made significant contributions to the world of salsa music, such as Marc Anthony and Celia Cruz. Their music continues to inspire and energize dancers, and has become a cultural icon in the Latin American community.
Salsa music plays an integral role in salsa dancing, and enhances the experience of the dance by providing a lively rhythm and infectious beat.
Bachata Dance Style
As we move on to the next Latin dance style, we come to a genre that has a much slower pace than the lively Salsa or upbeat Merengue. This dance style, with a heavy emphasis on sensuality and romance, has become increasingly popular in recent years. Its roots lie in the Dominican Republic, and this style is none other than Bachata. Let’s dive into the history, movements, and music that define Bachata and explore why it continues to captivate dancers all around the world. If you’re interested in the contributions of famous Latin dancers to the world of dance, check out our article on famous Latin dancers and their contributions.
Origins and Characteristics of Bachata
Bachata originated in the Dominican Republic in the early 1960s, mainly in rural areas. It emerged from a mix of bolero music, which was popular in Latin America at the time, and local traditional music such as the merengue. It was once considered music of the lower class due to its association with poverty, and it was even banned in some parts of the country.
Despite this, bachata gained popularity and underwent a transformation in the 1980s. The music became more polished, and the lyrics shifted from focusing solely on heartbreak and romance to addressing social issues and politics. Today, bachata is a widely recognized dance style enjoyed across the globe.
Characteristics of Bachata:
- Bachata music is characterized by its slow tempo, often around 120 beats per minute.
- The music features a prominent guitar that is played in a repetitive pattern, as well as bongos and other percussion instruments.
- Bachata dancing is known for its intimate and sensual style, with partners often dancing in close proximity and utilizing hip and body movements.
- The basic bachata step involves a side-to-side motion with a tap on the fourth beat, with variations such as turns and dips.
- Bachata is often danced in a four-step pattern, with partners moving in a circular motion around each other.
- Costumes for bachata dancing are typically less formal than those for salsa, with men wearing jeans and button-down shirts and women wearing dresses or skirts.
Bachata has become a popular dance style due to its emotive music and sensual dancing, with many people around the world eager to learn and practice its unique steps and techniques.
Basic Steps and Movement
When it comes to Latin dancing, each style has its own distinct steps and movements that create the overall style and feel of the dance. Here are the basic steps and movements for each of the three popular styles:
- Forward and Backward Basic Step: This is the most fundamental step in salsa, where the dancers take a step forward and then a step back.
- Cross Body Lead: The lead takes the follower to the side and crosses their body to switch places.
- Cucaracha Step: A quick step where the dancer steps in place and then to the side.
- Shines: Solo footwork where the dancers showcase their individual style and technique.
- Side-to-Side Basic Step: A basic step where the dancers step side-to-side with a slight tap of their foot on each step.
- Forward and Backward Basic Step: A basic bachata step where the dancers step forward and then back.
- Cuban Motion: A hip movement where the hips move in a circular motion.
- Body Roll: A slow, sensuous movement where the upper body rolls down and then up.
- Basic Step: A march-like step where the dancers step one foot at a time in a marching motion.
- Hammerlock Turn: The lead wraps their arm around the follower’s waist and turns them in a circular motion.
- Shadow Step: A basic step where the lead steps to the side and then the follower copies the same movement.
- Turns: Various turns and spins are incorporated into the dance.
While these basic steps and movements lay the foundation for each style, there is also room for individual creativity and expression within each dance. It’s important to practice the fundamentals and then build upon them to make the dance your own.
Popular Bachata Music
Bachata music has a distinct sound characterized by its use of the guitar, bongos, and a güira. Some popular Bachata songs include:
- Obsesión by Aventura – this classic Bachata song is about a man who is obsessed with a woman who is no longer with him. It is a slow, emotional song that is perfect for a romantic dance.
- Besos mojados by Prince Royce – this upbeat Bachata song is about the excitement and passion of a new relationship. The catchy tune and lively beat make it a popular choice for dancing.
- Propuesta indecente by Romeo Santos – this song is about a man who proposes to his lover in a bold and risqué way. The sensual lyrics and playful rhythms make it a favorite among Bachata enthusiasts.
- La diabla by Romeo Santos – this Bachata song tells the story of a man who falls in love with a woman who turns out to be trouble. The catchy melody and Santos’ smooth vocals make it an irresistible dance tune.
- Hilito by Romeo Santos – another popular Romeo Santos song, Hilito is a heart-wrenching Bachata ballad about a man who realizes he has fallen out of love with his partner. The passionate lyrics and rhythm make it a must-have in any Bachata playlist.
These are just a few examples of the many beloved Bachata songs that have captured the hearts of Latin dance enthusiasts around the world. Whether you prefer slow, emotional tunes or lively beats that will get you moving, there is a Bachata song out there for everyone.
Merengue Dance Style
As we continue our exploration of Latin dance, we arrive at a style that is both lively and fast-paced – the Merengue. Originating from the Dominican Republic, the Merengue is a dance style that has become popular worldwide thanks to its energetic movements and catchy rhythms. With its distinctive beat and unique dance technique, the Merengue provides an exhilarating dance experience that is hard to forget. In this section, we’ll take a closer look at the history and characteristics of the Merengue, as well as its basic steps and popular music.
Origins and Characteristics of Merengue
Merengue originated in the Dominican Republic and is considered the national dance of the country. It evolved from a mix of African, European, and indigenous influences. Merengue was initially associated with rural, humble people and was frowned upon by the upper class. However, it eventually gained popularity among all social classes and became a major part of Dominican culture.
The characteristics of Merengue are unique and distinguish it from other Latin dances. One of the most distinct features is the use of a marching style, where dancers lift their feet and place them back on the ground in a marching motion. This syncopated rhythm is accompanied by upbeat music with a 2/4 time signature.
In terms of basic steps and movements, Merengue is relatively easy to learn compared to other Latin dances. It involves a simple step and lift motion, where partners move in unison and hold each other close. The dance also involves dips, turns, and spins that add variety and excitement to the performance.
Popular Merengue music often includes a brass section, drums, and accordion, giving it a lively and festive sound. The lyrics are often about love, the Dominican Republic, and social or political issues. Some of the most famous Merengue songs include “Suavemente” by Elvis Crespo and “Ojala Que Llueva Cafe” by Juan Luis Guerra.
Overall, Merengue is a lively and upbeat dance that has a significant cultural significance in the Dominican Republic. Its simple steps and catchy rhythms have made it accessible and enjoyable for dancers of all levels.
Basic Steps and Movement
When it comes to Latin dance, each style has its own unique steps and movements that make it stand out. Here’s a breakdown of the basic steps and movements for each of the three styles: Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue.
Salsa is a fast-paced dance style that incorporates quick footwork, spins, and turns. Here are some of the basic steps:
|Basic Step/Forward-Backward Step||Stepping forward with one foot, shifting weight, and stepping back with the other foot|
|Cross Body Lead||Stepping to the side, crossing one foot in front of the other, and leading the partner to the other side|
|Cucaracha Step||Sideways step with a tap on the fourth step|
|Spot Turn||Keeping feet in place and rotating upper body in a turn|
Bachata is a slower and more sensual dance style, often characterized by close partner connection and hip movements. Here are some of the basic steps:
|Basic Step/Side-to-Side Step||Stepping to the side with one foot, shifting weight, and stepping to the side with the other foot|
|Forward-Backward Step||Stepping forward with one foot, shifting weight, and stepping back with the other foot|
|Crossover Step||Stepping one foot in front of the other and crossing over, then bringing the other foot to meet it|
|Hip Movement||Pushing hips forward and back, or side to side, in sync with the music|
Merengue is a lively and playful dance style that involves marching and turning in time with the music. Here are some of the basic steps:
|Basic Step/Forward-Backward Step||Marching in place, shifting weight between feet and stepping forward and backward|
|Crossover Step||Stepping one foot in front of the other and crossing over, then bringing the other foot to meet it|
|Cuban Step||Stepping left or right, then bringing the other foot behind it and tapping it on the ground|
|Turning Step||Marching in a circle and turning with the music|
Learning the basic steps is just the beginning, as each style has a wide range of advanced steps and techniques that can be mastered with practice and patience.
Popular Merengue Music
Merengue is one of the most popular genres of Latin music that originated in the Dominican Republic. Its fast-paced beat and energetic rhythms make it an ideal danceable music. The following is a list of some of the most popular merengue tracks that have crossed over into mainstream pop culture:
- “Suavemente” by Elvis Crespo: This song reached worldwide fame and was a huge commercial success. Its catchy chorus and upbeat tempo make it a staple track in any merengue playlist.
- “Oye” by Grupo Niche: It has a strong percussion beat that provides a perfect rhythm for dancing merengue. The lyrics are beautifully crafted and convey the essence of the music.
- “La Bilirrubina” by Juan Luis Guerra: This song blends merengue with other genres of music such as salsa and jazz. The song’s lyrics describe the condition of having an elevated level of bilirubin in the bloodstream, which is a metaphor for being deeply in love.
- “El Africano” by Wilfrido Vargas: This is a classic merengue track that was first released in 1984. It is popular in all Latin American countries and is played at various events such as weddings, parties, and festivals. The song has a lively and infectious rhythm that gets everyone on the dance floor.
- “El Baile del Perrito” by Wilfrido Vargas: Another hit by Vargas, this track is a perfect example of the fusion of Caribbean rhythms with merengue. The song has little references to the movements of a dog, thus the name which translates to “The Dance of the Little Dog.”
These songs have helped spread and popularize the merengue genre worldwide. The catchy rhythms and upbeat tempo of merengue make it an irresistible music genre for dancing and having a good time.
What Sets Them Apart
As we have explored the origins, characteristics, basic steps, and popular music of Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue, it’s time to see what makes them unique. However, it’s not just the music or steps that distinguish these dances from one another. There are cultural, historical, and technical aspects that set them apart. Understanding these differences enhances our appreciation for each dance and enables us to express ourselves more authentically on the dance floor. So, let’s explore what sets these Latin dances apart.
Music and Rhythm
The music and rhythm of Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue are what make these dances so unique and special. Let’s take a closer look at each dance style’s musical elements:
- Originating from Cuba, salsa music is a blend of African and Spanish influences, with a strong percussion section including the clave, congas, and timbales.
- The rhythm of salsa music is a 4/4 time signature, with an emphasis on the first and third beats of the measure. This is known as the clave rhythm.
- Salsa music typically features a call-and-response vocal style, where the lead singer is echoed by a chorus.
- The music often includes brass sections, piano, and bass.
- Bachata originated in the Dominican Republic, and its music typically features a guitar, bongos or congas, and a bass guitar or double bass.
- The rhythm of bachata music is slower than salsa, with a 4/4 time signature and a focus on the second and fourth beats of the measure.
- Bachata songs often tell stories of heartbreak, love, and romance.
- The guitar plays a prominent role in bachata music, with a distinct, melancholy sound.
- Merengue originated in the Dominican Republic, and its music features a fast-paced, upbeat tempo with a 2/4 time signature.
- The rhythm of merengue is characterized by a percussion section, including a güira (a metal scraper), tambora (a two-headed drum), and congas. The güira plays a prominent role in the rhythm of the music.
- Merengue music often includes brass instruments like trumpets and trombones, as well as accordion and saxophone.
- The lyrics of merengue songs often focus on social and political issues or celebrations.
Each dance style’s unique rhythm and musical elements influence the way it is danced. Salsa is characterized by its fast-paced footwork, while bachata is slower and more sensual. Merengue’s quick pace and upbeat rhythm make it a joyful and energetic dance. Understanding the musical differences between these dance styles can help you feel more connected to the music and better able to express yourself through dance.
Dance Styles and Techniques
When it comes to dance styles and techniques, each of these Latin dances has its own unique characteristics. Salsa, known for its quick, sharp movements, incorporates intricate footwork and turns, often requiring the leader to guide their partner with precision. Bachata, on the other hand, emphasizes sensual and romantic movements, with an emphasis on hip motion and close contact between partners. Merengue, with its upbeat tempo, features a distinct march-like step and a focus on arm movements and turns.
To better understand the differences between these dance styles, let’s take a closer look at their techniques. The following table breaks down some of the key differences in footwork, partner contact, and overall style:
|Dance Style||Footwork||Partner Contact||Style|
|Salsa||Quick and intricate footwork, turns and spins||Leader guides partner with precision||Sharp and energetic|
|Bachata||Emphasizes hip motion and footwork syncopation||Close partner contact and sensual movements||Romantic and intimate|
|Merengue||Distinct march-like step and occasional turns||Focus on arm movements and turns||Upbeat and lively|
As you can see, each dance has its own unique style and techniques that make it distinct from the others. Whether you prefer the sharp energy of salsa, the sensual intimacy of bachata, or the lively fun of merengue, these Latin dances have something to offer for everyone.
Latin dance styles such as salsa, bachata, and merengue hold cultural significance as they are a part of the history and traditions of Latin America. Each dance style has its distinct origin, history, and cultural significance.
Regarding salsa, it originated in the Caribbean and was born as a mix of different Latin dance styles. Salsa has become an important part of Latin American culture and dance communities. In the United States and Europe, salsa dance clubs and events are popular social gathering places for people of Latin American heritage and those interested in Latin American culture.
On the other hand, bachata was once seen as a lower-class dance style, but it has since gained popularity and respect. Bachata is now widely accepted and loved for its storytelling, romance, and sensuality. Bachata music, especially in the Dominican Republic, often focuses on themes of love, heartbreak, and longing.
Lastly, merengue has a strong cultural significance as it is the national dance of the Dominican Republic. It originated in the early 19th century and since has become an important part of Dominican culture. The dance style is often performed during national celebrations and cultural events. It is characterized by its fast-paced rhythm and joyful movements.
Each of these Latin dance styles has contributed to the cultural heritage of Latin America and has become a way to express cultural identity, traditions, and values. Through these dance styles, people can connect with their cultural roots and celebrate their community’s history and traditions.
|Dance Style||Cultural Significance|
|Salsa||Salsa has become an important part of Latin American culture and dance communities. In the United States and Europe, salsa dance clubs and events are popular social gathering places for people of Latin American heritage and those interested in Latin American culture.|
|Bachata||Bachata was once seen as a lower-class dance style, but it has since gained popularity and respect. Bachata is now widely accepted and loved for its storytelling, romance, and sensuality. Bachata music, especially in the Dominican Republic, often focuses on themes of love, heartbreak, and longing.|
|Merengue||Merengue has a strong cultural significance as it is the national dance of the Dominican Republic. It originated in the early 19th century and since has become an important part of Dominican culture. The dance style is often performed during national celebrations and cultural events. It is characterized by its fast-paced rhythm and joyful movements.|
In conclusion, Latin dance is a vibrant and diverse art form that has taken the world by storm. Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue are three of the most popular styles of Latin dance, each with its own unique character and cultural significance.
With origins in Cuba and Puerto Rico, Salsa is characterized by its fast-paced footwork and intricate partner work, set to the rhythm of the clave. Bachata, on the other hand, emerged from the Dominican Republic as a slower, more sensual dance style, often danced more closely than Salsa. And Merengue, with its origins in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, is known for its quick, upbeat tempo and simple footwork that allows for improvisation and individual expression.
While each of these styles is distinct, they share many common elements, such as the importance of rhythm, partner connection, and improvisation. They also serve as a cultural bridge, connecting people from different backgrounds and countries through the universal language of music and dance.
Whether you are a beginner or an experienced dancer, embracing the diversity of Latin dance can enrich your life and open up new opportunities for cultural exploration and personal growth. So put on your dancing shoes, immerse yourself in the music, and let the rhythms of Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue take you on a journey you’ll never forget.
What is the difference between Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue?
Salsa, Bachata, and Merengue are distinct Latin dance styles with different origins, rhythms, and techniques.
Is Salsa a partner dance?
Yes, Salsa is a partner dance that involves a lead and a follow dancer.
What is the music tempo for Salsa?
The music tempo for Salsa is usually between 150-250 beats per minute.
Can you dance Bachata without a partner?
Yes, Bachata can be danced solo or with a partner. There are footwork patterns that can be done alone, called shines.
What is the origin of Merengue?
Merengue originates from the Dominican Republic and has African and European influences.
What is the difference between Bachata and Salsa music?
Bachata music is typically slower and more romantic, while Salsa music has a faster tempo and more upbeat rhythm.
Can you dance Merengue alone?
Yes, Merengue is a solo dance that does not require a partner.
What are the basic steps of Bachata?
The basic steps of Bachata involve a side-to-side motion and a hip movement known as a hip sway.
What makes Salsa unique compared to other Latin dances?
Salsa is unique because it incorporates Afro-Caribbean elements, such as the use of cowbells and congas, with Latin and jazz dance styles.
What are the cultural origins of these dances?
Salsa has roots in Cuba and Puerto Rico, Bachata originates from the Dominican Republic, and Merengue is a traditional dance of the Dominican Republic and Haiti.