Warning: A non-numeric value encountered in /var/www/html/wp-content/plugins/gp-premium/elements/class-block-elements.php on line 785

Street Dance: Beyond the Moves

Deprecated: Function wp_get_loading_attr_default is deprecated since version 6.3.0! Use wp_get_loading_optimization_attributes() instead. in /var/www/html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 6078

As the beat drops and the dancers hit the floor, the air is charged with energy and emotion. There’s something special about street dance that goes beyond just the moves. It’s a cultural phenomenon that has its roots in resistance and self-expression, and has grown to become a global force. From the communities it builds to the positive impact it has on youth culture, street dance is more than just a dance style. This article explores the cultural and social significance of street dance, as well as its various styles and influences. Join us as we go beyond the surface and discover the world of street dance.

The Cultural Significance of Street Dance

The Cultural Significance Of Street Dance
Street dance is more than just a physical expression of movement. It is a culture, with roots that trace back to communities and neighborhoods often overlooked and marginalized by mainstream society. Street dance is a way to connect, to communicate, and to tell stories that might otherwise go untold. In this section, we will explore the cultural significance of street dance and its impact on society. We will delve into the origin and evolution of street dance, its influence on youth culture, and the rise of street dance festivals and competitions worldwide. For more information on the different styles of street dance, check out our article on 10 Street Dance Styles: Exploring the Global Phenomenon.

Street Dance Origin and Roots

Street dance as we know it today has deep roots in African American and Latinx communities of the United States. Despite being a diverse and constantly evolving art form, street dance is often characterized by its improvised and reactive nature, which reflects the tough historical circumstances of its origins.

One of the main cultural influences on street dance was the era of slavery in America. During this time, African slaves used dance both as a form of resistance and as a means of preserving their culture and traditions. They adapted traditional African dance styles to incorporate elements of European and American styles, creating new forms of dance that reflected their lived experiences.

As African Americans migrated out of the South and into other parts of the United States during the 20th century, these types of dance styles evolved and spread to new communities. In urban areas like New York City, street dance became a popular form of entertainment and self-expression for African American and Latinx youth.

Hip-hop music also played a significant role in the development of street dance as we know it today. As DJs began to experiment with new techniques like sampling and beatboxing, dancers found new ways to move their bodies to the music. This led to the creation of new street dance styles like breaking, popping, and locking, which are still popular today.

The origins of street dance are deeply intertwined with the history and culture of African American and Latinx communities in the United States. While it has since spread to become a global phenomenon, its roots remain an important part of its cultural significance.

Street Dance as a Form of Resistance and Self-Expression

Street dance originated in marginalized communities where people used it as a form of resistance and self-expression. It was a way for people to express themselves creatively and individually while also connecting with others in their community. In the 1970s, it became particularly popular among Black and Latinx communities in New York City. These communities faced a lot of discrimination and oppression, but street dance allowed them to reclaim their identities and culture through art.

Social and political issues often inspired the moves and styles of street dance. For example, breaking, which involves breakdancers performing acrobatic moves on the ground, was influenced by martial arts and gymnastics. It was also a way for young people to assert themselves in a world where they may have felt powerless. Popping, a style that involves quick muscle contractions, was created as a way to mimic the robotic movements of machines and comment on the dehumanization of modern society.

Street dance also allowed people to express themselves in ways that weren’t available to them through traditional forms of dance. For example, hip-hop dance incorporates a lot of “freestyle” movement, where dancers improvise and add their own personal flair to the steps. This was important for people who may not have had access to formal dance training or who didn’t want to conform to traditional dance norms.

Street dance is about individual empowerment and the power of community. It allows people to connect with others who share their experiences and struggles and to use movement as a way to give voice to those experiences. Street dance has the power to inspire and uplift people, and it will continue to be an important cultural force for years to come.

Source: history-evolution-street-dance

Globalization of Street Dance

Street dance has become a truly global phenomenon, spreading its influence beyond its roots in urban centers to touch nearly every corner of the world. As hip hop music and culture has become more mainstream, the influence of street dance has likewise spread, becoming a cultural force to be reckoned with.

One way that street dance has become more globalized is through the internet, and especially through online platforms like YouTube and Instagram. Amateur and professional dancers alike can now share their skills and their passion with a worldwide audience, helping to spread the love of street dance to new generations of dancers. Thanks to these platforms, it’s possible for anyone to learn some basic street dance moves from the comfort of home, or to master new techniques by watching video tutorials from expert dancers.

Another way that street dance has expanded globally is through the creation of worldwide competitions and festivals. Every year, dancers from around the world travel to events like B-Boy Championships or the Urban Dance & Arts Festival in Los Angeles to showcase their skills and learn from other dancers. These events provide a way for dancers to connect with one another across cultures and national borders, and to create a community of people who share a love of street dance.

Of course, with globalization comes the risk of cultural appropriation, and there are concerns that some people are exploiting street dance for commercial gain without understanding its cultural and historical roots. But for the most part, street dance remains a symbol of resistance and self-expression that has the power to bring people together from all walks of life, and to help communities connect and achieve greater social justice. As one renowned street dancer said in an interview on his experiences: “Street dance is a way of expressing ourselves – it’s our culture, it’s who we are.” And as long as street dance continues to inspire people and bring them together, its future looks bright.

The Social Impact of Street Dance

The Social Impact Of Street Dance
The impact of street dance extends beyond just the physical movements and flashy performances. It has a powerful social impact, bringing communities together and empowering individuals. Street dance has become a way for people to connect with others who share similar interests and values. As [benefits of street dance for health] have been identified, it is increasingly being recognized as a valuable tool for community and youth development. Additionally, street dance has been used as a form of social activism and empowerment, helping to promote social justice and positive change. This has been evident in the history of street dance, from its origins as a form of resistance to its spread around the world. As such, street dance truly embodies the spirit of community and empowerment.

Community Building and Socialization

Street dance has tremendous power in creating strong communities and providing opportunities for socialization. Community building takes place through street dance when participants come together to share their passion and love for the art form. Street dance gatherings, competitions, and events are excellent platforms to build relationships and connect with people from diverse backgrounds who share common interests. Dancing creates a sense of belonging and provides a way for individuals to express themselves in a supportive environment.

Street dance provides a positive outlet for youth to engage in constructive activities and develop valuable life skills. Socialization is enhanced when dancers come together to learn, share and grow with one another, building a network of friends and peers that can last a lifetime. Through dance, individuals learn critical social skills, such as communication, teamwork, and leadership.

Street dance has the power to break down social barriers and create connections beyond race, ethnicity, age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Many dancers have testified that they have found lifelong friendships and support through their participation in street dance.

Street dance communities are often involved in charity events and outreach programs, providing opportunities to give back to the broader community. These positive contributions strengthen bonds between dancers and the community, promoting a sense of responsibility and purpose. For instance, many street dance events have raised funds for community-based initiatives.

Whether in competitive or non-competitive settings, street dance unites people and provides opportunities for meaningful social engagement. It is a powerful tool for building strong communities and fostering social connections.

Positive Influence on Youth Culture

Street dance has a profound influence on youth culture, providing young people with a platform to express themselves creatively while also fostering social connections and a sense of belonging. Through street dance, youth are able to connect with others who share similar interests and values, creating tight-knit communities based around a shared love of dance and music.

Street dance is also a powerful tool for empowering young people, as it promotes self-expression and self-confidence while also encouraging positive behaviors and values such as respect, hard work, and dedication. By providing a space for youth to showcase their talents and build their skills, street dance can help to foster a sense of purpose and accomplishment in young people, giving them the confidence and motivation they need to succeed in other areas of their lives.

Street dance can also have a positive impact on physical and mental health, as it provides a fun and engaging form of exercise that can help to improve coordination, stamina, and cardiovascular health. Additionally, the social connections and community building aspects of street dance can also help to reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation, which can have a positive impact on mental health and well-being.

The positive influence of street dance on youth culture cannot be overstated. Through its emphasis on self-expression, community building, and physical and mental wellness, street dance provides young people with a powerful tool for personal growth and empowerment. Whether through attending workshops and performances, participating in dance battles, or simply enjoying the music and fashion of street dance culture, young people can benefit enormously from the rich and diverse world of street dance.

Empowerment and Social Justice

Street dance is not just about the moves, it also has a strong connection to empowerment and social justice. This dance form has been a way for marginalized communities to express themselves and make themselves heard. Street dance has been used as a tool for empowerment, both individually and communally.

Empowerment through Street Dance
One of the biggest advantages of street dance is that it allows individuals to find and develop their own voice through movement. Through dance, people can express themselves in ways that they might not be able to through words. For many, street dance has been something that has helped them find their identity and a sense of belonging. When people feel empowered and confident, they are more likely to stand up for themselves and stand for what is right. Street dancers who have found themselves through the dance have gone on to do important work in their communities and create positive change.

Social Justice through Street Dance
Street dance has a history of being used as a form of resistance against oppression. It originated in communities that faced discrimination and marginalization, and it allowed these groups to express their frustrations and struggle against their oppressors. Over time, this dance form spread across the world, and it has been used as a form of social justice in different societies to promote equality and justice. Street dance is often performed at protests and rallies, and it has been used to raise awareness about social issues such as police brutality, racial discrimination and gender inequality.

Street dance, through its connection to empowerment and social justice, has a powerful impact on individuals and communities. People who feel heard and empowered are more likely to contribute positively to society. Street dance can be used as a tool for personal growth as well as for promoting positive change in the world.

Street Dance Styles and Influences

Street Dance Styles And Influences
When we talk about street dance, we can’t ignore the different styles and influences that have shaped this art form. Each style has its unique characteristics and history, reflects the culture and lifestyle of the dancers who created it, and has influenced the development of other dance styles. From hip-hop dance to Latin street dance, each style has its own rhythm, steps, and philosophy. Let’s explore some of the most popular styles of street dance and their rich cultural background. To learn about the connection between street dance and hip-hop music, follow the link.

Hip-hop dance

Hip-hop dance is a form of street dance that has its roots in African American and Latino communities in the Bronx, New York City during the 1970s. The dance style is characterized by a wide range of styles and techniques, including breaking, popping, locking, and krumping.

Breaking, also known as breakdancing, is one of the most well-known styles of hip-hop dance. It involves acrobatic and athletic moves, such as spins, jumps, and freezes. Popping, on the other hand, relies on sudden tensing and releasing of muscles to create a popping or ticking effect. Locking involves intricate arm and hand movements and incorporates comedic elements, such as pointing and winking at the audience. Krumping is a high-energy style that originated in Los Angeles and is known for its aggressive, stomping movements.

Hip-hop dance has become a global phenomenon and has had a significant impact on popular culture. It has influenced fashion, music, and even advertising, as seen in numerous commercials and music videos. Additionally, hip-hop dance has been utilized by communities as a means of self-expression, as well as a form of activism, addressing issues such as racism, poverty, and police brutality.

The positive impact of hip-hop dance extends beyond cultural significance. It has also been shown to have physical and mental health benefits. According to studies, dancing can improve cardiovascular health, increase strength and flexibility, and alleviate stress and anxiety.

In recent years, hip-hop dance has also become synonymous with fashion, with many dancers incorporating trendy streetwear and sneakers into their performances. In fact, dressing up for a dance battle has become an integral part of the hip-hop dance community.

Hip-hop dance is a dynamic and ever-evolving form of street dance that has truly transcended generations and borders. Its diverse styles, cultural significance, and positive impact have cemented its place as one of the most influential dance styles of our time.


Breaking, also known as breakdancing, is a style of street dance that originated in the Bronx, New York City in the early 1970s. It is characterized by athletic acrobatic movements, such as spinning, flipping, and balancing on different parts of the body. Breaking is often associated with the hip-hop culture and music but has also evolved to incorporate influences from other dance styles.

Breaking emerged in the 1970s as a form of self-expression and a way for youth in marginalized communities to escape their challenging circumstances. It was often performed at block parties and other underground events and quickly gained popularity throughout New York City. As breaking evolved, dancers began to incorporate more complex movements, including headspins and freezes, and the style began to spread outside of New York to other parts of the United States and eventually the world.

Breaking is often characterized by its acrobatic movements, including toprocking, footwork, power moves, and freezes. Toprocking involves dancing on the feet while in a standing position, while footwork involves intricate movements and steps performed close to the ground. Power moves are more acrobatic and involve spinning on various parts of the body, such as the head or hands, while freezes involve striking a pose and holding it in place.

Breaking has had a significant influence on street dance and has been incorporated into other styles, such as popping and locking. It has also been featured in mainstream media, such as movies and music videos, which has helped to further popularize the style. Breaking has also been recognized as a sport, with competitions and events held worldwide.

Breaking has a strong community aspect, with dancers often forming crews and practicing and performing together. The style has also been used as a tool for social change, with organizations using it as a way to engage with and support youth in marginalized communities.

Breaking continues to be an influential and respected style within street dance, and its evolution and incorporation of new influences ensures its continued relevance in the future.


Locking is a funk style dance that originated in Los Angeles in the 1960s. This dance style emphasizes sudden pauses and sharp movements, giving the overall appearance of “locking” into place. Locking was created by Don Campbell, also known as “Campbellock,” who combined moves from his previous dance experiences with African American and soul music.

Locking is known for its playful and entertaining nature. Dancers often incorporate comedic and theatrical elements into their routines, adding to the energy and excitement of their performances. The style also includes a variety of hand gestures and arm movements that complement the footwork.

Some of the key moves in locking include the “lock,” where dancers freeze in place, and the “points,” where specific body parts are emphasized and isolated. The “scooby doo” or “scoo b doo” is another common locking move where dancers hop and point in different directions.

Locking has been influential in the development of many other street dance styles, including popping and hip hop. Its fun and playful nature has made it a popular choice for performances, and it has been featured in various music videos and films throughout the years.

Some famous lockers include:

  • Don “Campbellock” Campbell – the creator of locking
  • Tony “Go-Go” Lewis – a member of The Lockers dance crew and known for his unique style and personality
  • Skeeter Rabbit – known for his comedic personality and influential footwork
  • Shabba-Doo Quinones – one of the original members of The Lockers dance crew and an influential figure in the development of popping and locking

Locking is a fun and entertaining style that has had a significant impact on street dance culture. Its incorporation of funk music and theatrical elements has made it a popular choice for performances and has helped to shape other styles of street dance.


One popular style of street dance is popping, which involves sudden movements of the body known as “pops.” This style originated in California in the 1960s and gained popularity as part of the funk music scene.


Popping is characterized by sharp, isolated movements of the body, often done in time with the music’s beat. Dancers will abruptly contract and release their muscles, creating a jerky, robotic effect. Some common popping moves include the robot, the dime stop, and the wave.


Popping was heavily influenced by the funk music of the 1970s, particularly the music of artists like James Brown, George Clinton, and Sly and the Family Stone. Dancers often wore exaggerated costumes and used props, such as canes or hats, to enhance their performances.


As popping grew in popularity, it began to evolve into new styles such as boogaloo, tutting, and waving. These styles incorporated new techniques and movements, such as intricate hand gestures and fluid body rolls.

Modern Popularity

Popping remains a popular style of street dance today, and is often seen in hip-hop music videos and live performances. Popular contemporary dancers who have incorporated popping into their routines include Les Twins and in the past, the legendary Michael Jackson.

Notable dancers

Some notable dancers in the popping community include Boogaloo Sam, who is considered one of the pioneers of the style, and Poppin’ Pete, who has performed with artists like Michael Jackson and Madonna.

Popping demonstrates the creativity and adaptability of street dance styles, as it has evolved over time and continues to influence contemporary dance culture.


Krumping is a street dance style that gained popularity in the early 2000s in Los Angeles, California. It is known for its high-energy moves and intense, emotional expression. Krumping is characterized by its use of quick, sharp movements, including arm swings, chest pops, and foot stomps.

One of the unique features of krumping is the use of “bucking,” which involves the dancer aggressively thrusting their chest forward in a powerful and controlled movement. This move is often repeated throughout a krump routine for added emphasis.

Krumping is also known for its “freestyle” nature, with dancers improvising moves and responding to the music in the moment. This allows for a great deal of creativity and individuality in krumping performances.

Krumping developed as a dance form for the African American community in Los Angeles and is closely connected to the city’s hip-hop scene. While it began as a form of self-expression and release for a marginalized community, krumping has since gained wider attention and is now often performed in mainstream settings.

With its high energy and emotional expression, krumping has also been used as a tool for social justice and empowerment. In addition to its roots in the African American community, krumping has been adopted by other marginalized groups, including LGBTQ+ communities and those affected by poverty and violence.

Krumping has even been used as an educational tool, with programs like “Rize,” a documentary film about krumping, being incorporated into school curriculums. The style’s intense physicality and emotional expression can help youth build confidence, self-esteem, and communication skills.

Krumping is a powerful and unique street dance style that continues to evolve and impact communities around the world.

Characteristics of Krumping
Quick, sharp movements
Use of “bucking”
Freestyle nature
Connected to hip-hop community
Used for social justice and empowerment
Incorporated into education programs

Latin street dance

Latin street dance is a style that incorporates elements of Latin American dances like salsa, bachata, and merengue into street dance culture. This style has gained popularity in recent years, drawing influence from different regions and cultural backgrounds.

Bachata: Bachata is a sensuous dance that originated in the Dominican Republic. It is a partner dance that involves a lot of hip movement, footwork, and connection between partners. Bachata has become a popular street dance style, with dancers incorporating it into their own personal styles.

Salsa: Salsa is a traditional Latin dance that has a street dance touch to it. It is a partner dance as well, and it involves intricate footwork, spinning, and body movement. Salsa has made its way into street dance culture through its incorporation in hip-hop and breaking choreography.

Merengue: Merengue is another popular Latin dance that has been adopted into street dance culture. It is a fast-paced dance that involves a lot of hip movement, footwork, and partner work. Merengue has been incorporated into street dance competitions and showcases, highlighting its influence in the street dance community.

Latin street dance has become a popular style that has impacted the street dance community in a positive way. It has enriched street dance culture by bringing in new influences and styles, and has fostered a deeper appreciation and understanding of Latin American dance traditions.

The Future of Street Dance

As street dance continues to grow in popularity and influence around the world, many are left wondering what the future holds for this unique art form. With its roots in communities that have often been marginalized, street dance has grown into a global phenomenon that has captured the attention of people from all walks of life. From street dance festivals and competitions to mainstream media and education, the possibilities for the future of street dance are vast and varied. As we look ahead, we can only imagine where the creativity and passion of street dancers will take us next.

Street Dance Festivals and Competitions

Street dance festivals and competitions have become a staple in the street dance community, where dancers can showcase their skills and creativity. These events bring together dancers from different parts of the world and provide a platform to share their artistry. They also serve as a means to celebrate and preserve the street dance culture.

One of the biggest street dance festivals is the UK B-Boy Championships which has been running for over 20 years. This competition brings together some of the best breakdancers in the world to compete for the coveted title. The event has also expanded to include competitions for other street dance styles such as popping and locking.

In the United States, World of Dance has gained popularity over the years as one of the biggest street dance competitions. It features dancers from around the world who compete for a chance to win cash prizes and get exposure. Another popular competition is the Battle of the Year, which originated in Germany and is now a global event that attracts thousands of spectators.

Aside from showcasing talent, street dance festivals also provide opportunities for networking and collaboration among dancers. Participating in these events can lead to new connections and opportunities for growth within the community.

Festivals like Juste Debout in France and Urban Dance Festival in Switzerland also offer workshops and seminars for dancers to learn from industry professionals and further develop their skills. This is beneficial not only for growth as a dancer but also for personal development.

Street dance festivals and competitions play an important role in the street dance community. They provide a platform for dancers to showcase their talents and gain exposure, while also promoting the art form and preserving its culture.

Street Dance in Mainstream Media

As street dance gains recognition as a legitimate art form, it is increasingly being featured in mainstream media. Platforms such as television shows, movies, and even commercials have incorporated street dance styles into their productions. This exposure not only allows street dancers to showcase their skills to a wider audience, but it also gives them the opportunity to earn a living as professional dancers.

Television shows: Network television shows such as “So You Think You Can Dance” and “America’s Best Dance Crew” have helped elevate the visibility of street dance. These shows have provided a platform for dancers to compete and showcase their skills on a national level. In addition to these competition shows, street dance has also been prominently featured in scripted television shows like “Empire” and “The Get Down.”

Movies: Many movies have also incorporated street dance styles into their storylines, including the popular Step Up franchise. These movies not only provide entertainment for audiences, but they also showcase the artistry and athleticism of street dance. Some movies even feature real-life street dancers as actors, such as the critically acclaimed film “Honey” starring Jessica Alba.

Commercials: Street dance has also been utilized in commercials to promote products and services. One example is the Nike commercials featuring dancer Lil Buck, who became famous for his unique style of street dance called jookin. These commercials not only showcase the skills of street dancers, but they also connect the art form to popular culture and fashion.

Despite the increased exposure in mainstream media, some street dancers have expressed concern about the commercialization and appropriation of their art form. They fear that the true essence of street dance as a form of resistance and self-expression may be lost in the pursuit of profit and fame. However, many street dancers also believe that the exposure in mainstream media allows them to spread their message of empowerment and social justice to a wider audience.

Street Dance as an Educational Tool

Street dance has become an increasingly popular form of educational tool in recent years. It offers a unique opportunity for individuals to not only learn new skills but also gain a deeper understanding of various cultures and communities.

One of the key benefits of using street dance as an educational tool is that it provides a practical and interactive way for individuals to learn. Rather than simply reading about different forms of dance or cultural practices, students have the opportunity to physically engage with the material. This has been shown to increase information retention and understanding.

Additionally, street dance can also help individuals to develop a range of soft skills, such as creativity, teamwork, and communication. This is particularly true in the context of group dance routines, where individuals must work together to create a cohesive performance.

Street dance can be used to promote social justice and activism. By exploring the cultural and historical context of different forms of street dance, students can gain a deeper understanding of the issues faced by various marginalized communities. This can foster a sense of empathy and connection, and in turn, lead to meaningful action.

Street dance has enormous potential as an educational tool. By offering a way to engage with different cultures, develop new skills, and promote social justice, it has become an important resource for educators and students alike.


In conclusion, it is clear that street dance extends far beyond just the physical movements and choreography. It holds immense cultural significance, serving as a form of resistance, self-expression, and community building. It has positively influenced youth culture, empowered individuals, and served as a tool for social justice. The globalization of street dance has led to the emergence of new styles and fusions, further expanding its reach.

As the future of street dance continues to evolve, it is essential to recognize its impact and potential as a means of entertainment, education, and social change. Street dance festivals and competitions provide a platform for dancers to showcase their talent and passion while also providing opportunities for cultural exchange and learning. The incorporation of street dance into mainstream media further exposes it to wider audiences and promotes its recognition as a legitimate art form.

Additionally, street dance has the potential to serve as an educational tool, teaching individuals essential skills such as discipline, teamwork, and creativity. It can be integrated into school curriculums and community programs, providing individuals with access to resources that promote personal and social growth.

In sum, street dance is more than just a style of dance. It has the power to bring people together, promote positive change, and serves as a unique expression of culture and identity. Its legacy continues to grow, and through recognition and support, it has the potential to leave a lasting impact on communities worldwide.

Preguntas frecuentes

What are the benefits of street dance?

Street dance not only helps with physical fitness but also promotes self-expression, creativity, and teamwork. It can also boost confidence and self-esteem.

Is street dance only for young people?

No, street dance is for people of all ages. There are many classes and events suited for adults who want to learn or continue practicing street dance.

What is the difference between hip-hop dance and breaking?

Hip-hop dance encompasses many styles, including breaking. Breaking is a specific style that originated from the Bronx in the 1970s, characterized by acrobatic moves performed on the ground.

Can street dance be learned online?

Yes, there are many resources, including online tutorials and classes, that can help learners develop their street dance skills.

What does krumping entail?

Krumping is a street dance style that originated in Los Angeles in the early 2000s. It involves intense, exaggerated movements and facial expressions, often used to express emotions or tell a story.

How has street dance influenced mainstream culture?

Street dance has influenced mainstream culture through music videos, television shows, and movies. Many popular dance styles today have roots in street dance culture.

What is the role of freestyling in street dance?

Freestyling, or improvising dance moves, is an important aspect of street dance. It allows dancers to express their individual styles and creativity, and can lead to new innovations in the dance form.

How can street dance be used as a tool for social justice?

Street dance can empower marginalized communities and give a voice to those who may not have one. It has been used as a form of protest and expression against social inequalities and injustices.

What are some common misconceptions about street dance?

Some people may believe that street dance is only for a certain demographic or that it promotes violence. However, street dance is for everyone and can promote unity and positive change.

What is the importance of street dance competitions and festivals?

Street dance competitions and festivals provide platforms for dancers to showcase their skills and creativity, as well as connect with other dancers and learn from each other. They also help to elevate street dance as an art form.


Leave a Comment