Warning: A non-numeric value encountered in /var/www/html/wp-content/plugins/gp-premium/elements/class-block-elements.php on line 785

The Intersection of Technology and Contemporary Dance

Deprecated: Function wp_get_loading_attr_default is deprecated since version 6.3.0! Use wp_get_loading_optimization_attributes() instead. in /var/www/html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 6078

Contemporary dance has evolved greatly over the years, with new styles and techniques emerging constantly. With the advancement of technology, contemporary dance has taken on a whole new dimension, incorporating technological innovations into performances to create a unique sensory experience for audiences. From motion-capture technology to exoskeletons, lighting design to holography, technology has influenced every aspect of contemporary dance productions. However, while the use of technology brings many benefits, it also poses its own set of challenges. In this article, we will explore the ways in which technology is being used in contemporary dance performances, the benefits and challenges of this integration, and speculate about the future of technology in the world of dance.

Technology in Choreography

Technology In Choreography
The integration of technology in contemporary dance performances has revolutionized the way choreographers approach their craft. From motion-capture technology to interactive costumes; technology provides limitless opportunities for dancers to explore new forms of movement and expression. In this section, we will explore the various technologies being incorporated into choreography and how they are transforming the art form.

Motion-Capture Technology

One of the most popular uses of technology in contemporary dance performances is Motion-Capture Technology. This technology involves using sensors to track the movements of dancers and translate those movements into animated digital characters or projections, adding a new dimension to the performance.

In motion-capture technology, dancers wear special suits equipped with sensors that record their movements. These movements are then captured as data and used to create digital animations or projections that can be used as a backdrop for the live performance.

This technology has been used in numerous contemporary dance performances, such as Wayne McGregor’s “Atomos” and Merce Cunningham’s “BIPED”. In “Atomos”, McGregor used motion-capture technology to bring an otherworldly feel to the performance, with projections of digital figures interacting with the dancers on stage.

Additionally, the technology has also been utilized in films, such as the animated movie “Avatar” and the live-action/animation hybrid “Enchanted”. In “Avatar”, motion-capture was used to create the movements of the Na’vi characters, which were then translated into digital renderings on screen.

Despite its benefits, motion-capture technology also presents some challenges. One of the biggest challenges is the cost of equipment and software, which can make it difficult for smaller dance companies to implement. Additionally, the use of motion-capture technology can take away from the live experience of a dance performance, which is why some critics oppose the use of this technology in dance.

Nevertheless, with the endless possibilities that this technology presents, it is safe to say that it will remain a popular tool for contemporary dance performances, as more choreographers seek to use technology to enhance their creative vision.

Virtual Reality

Virtual reality has been introduced to contemporary dance as a new way to enhance the audience’s experience. With the use of VR technology, dancers can transport the audience to a completely different world and immerse them in the performance. This technology allows the audience to view performances from various perspectives, such as on stage or backstage.

Additionally, virtual reality also allows dancers to create and practice their choreography in a digital world, giving them the opportunity to experiment with new movements and formations without physical limitations. This allows them to fine-tune their performances before executing them in the real world.

However, the use of VR in contemporary dance also poses some challenges. The technology is still relatively new and expensive, so not all dance companies have access to it. There is also a concern that VR may take away from the communal experience of live performances, as viewers may become too focused on their individual experience.

Despite these challenges, many choreographers and dance companies have embraced the use of virtual reality in their performances. For example, the contemporary dance company BalletBoyz used VR to create their 2018 performance “Protein,” which took the audience on a journey through a surreal digital world.

Virtual reality is a promising technology that can transform the way we experience contemporary dance. It opens up new possibilities for both performers and viewers, but careful consideration must be taken to ensure that it enhances rather than detracts from the live performance experience.

Sources:

Famous Dance Choreographers
Future of Dance Trends and Innovations

Projection Mapping

Projection mapping is a technology often used in contemporary dance performances to create a unique and immersive environment. This technique allows for mapping of images and videos to various surfaces, transforming them into virtual screens. Projection mapping can be achieved through both stationary and moving projectors, and can create a range of effects, from adding layers to the stage to creating intricate illusions of depth and movement.

How Projection Mapping is Used in Dance

Projection mapping has become increasingly popular in contemporary dance as a means of creating a dynamic and multi-layered stage. By projecting images and videos onto different surfaces, choreographers can create new dimensions of depth and texture, as well as manipulate the visual perception of the dancers’ movements. This technique also allows for the creation of a more immersive experience for the audience, as they become enveloped in the visual environment.

Projection mapping can be used in a variety of ways to enhance the storytelling and emotional impact of a dance piece. For example, in the contemporary ballet “The Four Seasons” by Crystal Pite and Jonathon Young, projection mapping was used to create a swirling vortex of autumn leaves, emphasizing the beauty and transience of the season. In another example, “Gravity of Center” by Alonzo King LINES Ballet, projection mapping was used to create a mesmerizing effect of the dancers appearing to dive into a pool of water as they moved across the stage.

Benefits and Challenges of Projection Mapping in Dance Performances

While projection mapping offers a range of creative possibilities for contemporary dance, it also presents some challenges. One of the main challenges is the need for precise timing and synchronization between the dancers and the projected images. Because the projection mapping is often used to create an illusion of depth and movement, any discrepancy between the dancers’ movements and the projected images can disrupt the illusion.

On the other hand, some of the benefits of projection mapping in dance performances include the ability to transform the stage and create immersive environments that engage the audience’s senses. Projection mapping also allows choreographers to experiment with visual storytelling, creating a dialogue between the physical movements of the dancers and the projected images.

The Future of Projection Mapping in Dance

As technology continues to advance, the possibilities for projection mapping in contemporary dance are becoming even more exciting. With the advent of real-time motion capture and virtual reality, projection mapping has the potential to become even more interactive and immersive. As the use of projection mapping in contemporary dance continues to evolve, we can expect to see even more groundbreaking and innovative productions in the future.

Projection mapping is a valuable tool for contemporary dance choreographers and designers to enhance the visual aspect of their performances. While it presents some challenges, the benefits of immersion and experimentation with visual storytelling make it a promising avenue for the future of dance.

Interactive Costumes

Interactive costumes are also being used in contemporary dance performances. These costumes are embedded with sensors and lights that are responsive to the dancer’s movements, creating a mesmerizing visual spectacle. The use of interactive costumes allows for the creation of unique atmospheres and a strengthening of the connection between the performer and the audience.

One example of interactive costumes in contemporary dance is the “Pulse” performance by the French dance company Adrien M / Claire B. The costumes in the performance were designed with LED lights that reacted to the dancers’ heartbeats, creating a stunning visual representation of their emotional states.

Another example is the “Constellations” performance by the German company Phase7. The dancers in the performance wore costumes equipped with sensors that triggered different sounds when they moved. The combination of movement and music created a beautiful and immersive experience for the audience.

However, there are also challenges with the use of interactive costumes in dance. The technology needs to be carefully integrated into the performance, as not to distract from the dance itself. There is also the challenge of ensuring that the technology works seamlessly throughout the performance, as a malfunctioning costume could ruin the entire show.

Overall, interactive costumes are an exciting addition to contemporary dance performances and will undoubtedly continue to be used in innovative and creative ways in the future.

Sources:

AdvantagesDisadvantages
Creates unique atmospheresDistraction from the dance itself
Strengthens connection between performer and audienceChallenges with ensuring technology works seamlessly throughout the performance
Allows for innovative and creative expressionMalfunctioning technology can ruin the entire show

Exoskeletons

Exoskeletons are a type of wearable technology that have increasingly been utilized in contemporary dance performances. These devices, which can be worn by dancers, provide added support and enhance their movements.

The Benefits of Exoskeletons in Dance Performances

The use of exoskeletons in dance performances has several benefits. One major advantage is that these devices allow performers to execute movements that may have been previously difficult or impossible. For example, an exoskeleton can provide additional support to a dancer’s legs, enabling them to perform higher and more complex jumps. Additionally, exoskeletons can help dancers maintain proper form and alignment, reducing the risk of injury.

How Exoskeletons are Used in Contemporary Dance

Exoskeletons can be incorporated into a dance piece in a variety of ways. Some choreographers use them as part of the costumes, incorporating the exoskeletons into the design. Others may use them as a standalone piece, with the exoskeleton serving as the central focus of the dance.

The Design of Exoskeletons for Dance Performances

The design of exoskeletons used in dance performances must take into consideration the specific movements required by the choreography. The structure of the exoskeletons must support the dancer’s body while allowing for fluid and unrestricted movement. Additionally, the exoskeletons must be lightweight and easy to move in, so as not to impede the dancer’s performance.

Challenges of Using Exoskeletons in Dance Performances

The use of exoskeletons in dance performances is not without its challenges. One of the primary concerns is the cost of these devices, as they can be quite expensive. Additionally, some dancers may find the added support provided by the exoskeletons to be restrictive or uncomfortable.

Despite these challenges, exoskeletons have the potential to revolutionize contemporary dance by enabling dancers to perform movements that were once considered impossible. As technology continues to advance, it is likely that we will see even more creative uses of exoskeletons and other wearable technology in dance performances.

Technology in Production Design

Technology In Production Design
As dance performances continue to evolve, production design has become an increasingly crucial element in enhancing the overall visual and sensory experience for audiences. The use of technology in production design has opened up a whole new world of creative possibilities for lighting, set design, sound, and even augmented reality. From laser projections to holography, technology has challenged and transformed the way designers approach the production of contemporary dance performances. In this section, we will dive into some of the innovative ways technology is being utilized in production design to bring dance performances to new heights.

Lighting Design

Lighting design plays a crucial role in enhancing the mood, atmosphere and overall beauty of contemporary dance performances. Lighting designers use various techniques and tools to create visually stunning effects that complement the music and motion of the dancers. Some of the commonly used lighting techniques in dance performances include:

  • Spotlights: These lights are used to highlight a specific dancer or area of the stage.
  • Color Filters: Color filters are used to change the hue and tone of the light, creating a different atmosphere and mood on stage.
  • Gobos: Gobos are stencils used to create patterns or images, which can be projected onto the backdrop or stage.
  • Followspots: Followspots are mobile lights that are manually focused on the performers as they move around the stage, providing a dramatic effect.
  • LED Lights: LED lights are energy-efficient and can provide a range of colors and effects, creating vivid and immersive experiences for the audience.

A skilled lighting designer can use these techniques to create stunning visuals that enhance the choreography and elevate the performance. For example, spotlights can be used to create a central focus on a dancer and color filters can shift the emotions and feelings conveyed throughout the performance.

However, lighting design also presents several challenges. One major challenge is ensuring that the lighting is consistent and accurate throughout the performance. Even small changes in setting or positioning can affect the entire performance. Another challenge is dealing with potential technical issues and failures, which can impact the visual effects and distract the audience.

Lighting design is a critical element of contemporary dance performances that makes the experience more visually engaging and immersive. With the continued advancement of technology, lighting designers have more tools and techniques available to create innovative and unforgettable stage settings.

Set Design

Set design is a crucial aspect of any performance and contemporary dance is no exception. In fact, advances in technology have allowed for some truly innovative and visually stunning set designs to enhance dance performances.

One technology that has made a significant impact on set design is projection mapping. This technique allows for imagery to be projected onto three-dimensional surfaces, creating a dynamic and immersive environment for the dancers. This can be seen in productions such as “Tree of Codes”, where complex geometries and vibrant colors were projected onto a seemingly empty stage, transforming it into a surreal and fantastical world.

Another technology that has been utilized in set design for dance performances is augmented reality. By using AR overlays on the stage, designers can create a seamless interaction between the physical and virtual worlds. This can add layers of depth and complexity to the performance, as seen in “Rainbow Serpent”, where pixelated creatures swarmed the stage and dancers interacted with them in real-time.

Holography is another technology that has been adapted for use in contemporary dance set design. By projecting light onto reflective surfaces, designers can create the illusion of holographic images floating in space. This technique was used to great effect in “Beyond”, where digital avatars of the dancers were projected onto transparent screens, creating a mesmerizing and almost otherworldly effect.

While the use of technology in set design has undoubtedly expanded the possibilities for dance performances, it also presents its own unique set of challenges. One of the main challenges is ensuring that the technology does not detract from the performance, but rather enhances it. Additionally, the cost of implementing and maintaining cutting-edge technology can be prohibitively expensive for smaller dance companies.

Despite these challenges, the use of technology in set design for contemporary dance performances shows no signs of slowing down. As advancements in technology continue to push the boundaries of what is possible, we can expect to see increasingly innovative and awe-inspiring set designs in the future.

Sound Design

Sound design plays a crucial role in contemporary dance performances, as it can enhance the emotional impact and create an immersive experience for the audience. Here are some key elements of sound design in dance:

  • Soundscapes: A soundscape is the aural environment of a performance, including music, sound effects, and ambient noise. Creating an appropriate soundscape can help to establish the tone and mood of the piece. Some dancers even incorporate sound-making elements into their movements, such as tapping or clapping, to add to the soundscape.
  • Live Music: Many contemporary dance performances incorporate live music, either with musicians on-stage or in the orchestra pit. Live music can create a more dynamic and interactive experience for both the dancers and the audience.
  • Pre-recorded Music: In some cases, pre-recorded music is used instead of live music. This can be beneficial for more experimental pieces, as it allows for more precise control over the timing and volume of the music.
  • Sampling: Some sound designers incorporate sampling into their work, taking snippets of sounds from various sources and re-assembling them into new compositions. This can create a unique and layered soundscape that adds to the overall sensory experience.
  • Sound Effects: Sound effects can be used to add to the atmosphere of a piece, such as the sound of wind or water, or to emphasize a particular movement or moment.
  • Collaboration: Collaboration between the sound designer and the choreographer is important, as the two elements must work together seamlessly to create a cohesive performance. The sound designer must understand the choreographer’s vision and work to enhance it through their sound design.

Ultimately, sound design should enhance the overall experience of the performance, adding an extra layer of sensory stimulation for the audience. As technology continues to evolve, it will likely play an even larger role in sound design for dance performances, allowing for even more experimentation and complexity in the soundscape.

Augmented Reality

One of the latest additions to the use of technology in dance performances is augmented reality (AR). Augmented reality technology allows for a blend of the physical world and computer-generated images, which can transform the way contemporary dance performances are conceptualized and presented.

AR technology can be used in dance productions in several ways, such as adding visual effects, enhancing the dancers’ movements, and creating interactive experiences for the audience. It involves the use of devices, such as smartphones and tablets, that can superimpose digital images on top of real-life settings.

In contemporary dance performances, AR technology can take the form of interactive backdrops that react to the dancers’ movements or costumes that project digital imagery onto the dancers. This creates a unique visual spectacle and increases audience engagement in the performance.

However, the use of AR in contemporary dance performances comes with some challenges. Firstly, the technology can be expensive to implement and maintain, which can limit its accessibility. Additionally, the use of AR can be distracting or overwhelming, taking away from the focus on the dancers and their movements.

Despite these challenges, the use of AR technology in dance performances presents a promising avenue for the future of the art form. By integrating digital elements with the physical space, it opens up possibilities for new forms of expression and audience engagement.

Here is a summary table on the use of AR in contemporary dance performances:

AdvantagesDisadvantages
Enhances visual effectsHigh cost of implementation
Creates interactive experiences for the audiencePossibility of being distracting or overwhelming
Blends physical world and computer-generated images

Holography

One of the most awe-inspiring uses of technology in contemporary dance performances is holography. Using holograms in dance performances allows dancers to interact with seemingly physical objects or beings that are not really there. The holograms are projected onto a transparent screen on the stage, providing depth and dimension to the performance.

This technology has been used in several dance performances, including the famous holographic performance of Michael Jackson at the 2014 Billboard Music Awards. In this performance, a hologram of Michael Jackson appeared on stage and danced with real-life backup dancers.

But holography can be used beyond resurrecting deceased performers. It can create new dimensions in a performance, incorporating holographic scenery and props that respond to the dancers’ movements. This allows for a more immersive experience for the audience, making them feel like they are a part of the performance.

Like all technologies, using holography in dance performances comes with its own set of challenges. One of the biggest challenges is the cost of equipment and expertise required to create detailed and realistic holograms. This technology is still relatively new and many dance companies may not have the budget to invest in it yet.

Another challenge is the technical difficulties that can arise during a performance. Holograms are complex and require a certain degree of precision when projecting them onto the stage. Any faults in the system can disrupt the performance and detract from the overall experience.

Despite these challenges, the use of holography in dance performances is only going to become more prominent in the future. With advancements in technology, it may become more affordable and easier to use, providing dancers with new and exciting ways to tell stories through their performances.

Laser Projection

Laser projection is a technology that is becoming increasingly popular in contemporary dance performances as a way to create stunning visual effects. This technology uses lasers to project images onto a surface, which can be anything from a flat screen to a three-dimensional object.

One of the benefits of laser projection is its ability to create vivid and bright images that can be seen even in bright lighting conditions. This is because laser projectors are much brighter than traditional projectors, and they can produce high-quality images that are much sharper and more detailed.

Another benefit of laser projection is its flexibility. Because it is a projection technology, it can be used to create a wide range of visual effects, from simple images to complex animations. This allows choreographers and production designers to create unique and dynamic visual experiences for audiences.

However, laser projection also presents some challenges. One of the main challenges is the cost of the technology. Laser projectors can be expensive to purchase and maintain, making them less accessible for smaller dance companies or independent choreographers. Additionally, the intense brightness of laser projectors can be potentially harmful to performers’ eyes, so care must be taken to ensure that they are used safely.

Despite these challenges, laser projection is a promising technology that has the potential to revolutionize dance performances. As the technology becomes more affordable and accessible, it is likely that we will see even more creative and innovative uses of laser projection in contemporary dance.

Benefits:

  • Produces bright and vivid images even in bright lighting conditions
  • Allows for flexibility in creating a wide range of visual effects
  • Can be used to create unique and dynamic visual experiences for audiences

Challenges:

  • Expensive to purchase and maintain
  • Intensity of laser light can be potentially harmful to performers’ eyes

Benefits and Challenges of Technology in Dance Performances

Benefits And Challenges Of Technology In Dance Performances
As with any innovation, the use of technology in contemporary dance performances brings with it a set of benefits and challenges that must be weighed carefully. On the positive side, technology can add new dimensions of creativity, interactivity, and spectacle to performances, allowing audiences to experience dance in new and exciting ways. However, technology can also present challenges related to technical difficulties, high costs, and potential disruptions to the artistic vision of a performance. It is important to carefully consider both the benefits and challenges of technology in dance in order to make informed decisions about its use in future performances.

Benefits:

The use of technology in contemporary dance performances has brought about several benefits, which are essential to consider. These benefits range from improving the choreography to enhancing the production design. Here are some of the benefits of technology in dance performances:

Improved Creativity:By incorporating technology into their performances, choreographers can explore new ideas and create novel dance movements. For instance, motion-capture technology allows dancers to interact with virtual environments, resulting in creative and unique dance performances.
Enhanced Production Design:Technology has allowed for a more immersive experience during dance performances, which has been made possible through the enhanced production design. Scenic designs, lighting, and sound can change throughout the performance with the use of technology to enhance the overall experience.
Improved Dancer Safety:Exoskeletons have been used to help dancers execute complex routines that may be difficult or risky to perform. By providing structural support, dancers can avoid straining their muscles and decrease the risk of potential injury.
Increased Accessibility:Technology has also made dance performances more accessible to people who may not have been able to attend live performances in the past. With live streaming and virtual reality, people from all over the world can now experience dance performances from the comfort of their homes.
Cultural Exchange:The use of technology has enabled dancers from different parts of the world to perform together without having to be in the same physical location. This has allowed for cultural exchange and collaboration between dancers, leading to more diverse and unique performances.

Technology has brought about several benefits to contemporary dance performances. It has improved creativity, enhanced production design, improved dancer safety, increased accessibility, and enabled cultural exchange. It is important to note, however, that the use of technology also presents certain challenges that need to be addressed.

Challenges:

Undoubtedly, the incorporation of technology has introduced several benefits to contemporary dance performances. However, there are still various challenges that choreographers and production designers face while using technology in their performances. Some of the major challenges are:

  • Technical Issues: Technology is not always reliable, and there are instances where it fails or malfunctions. Technical difficulties can disrupt the entire performance and can be frustrating for the performers as well as the audience.
  • Cost: The use of technology, especially the advanced ones such as motion-capture technology and exoskeletons, can be expensive. Small dance companies or independent choreographers may not have the budget to afford high-end technology, limiting their ability to fully utilize it in their performances.
  • Collaboration: While incorporating technology, several experts from different fields need to work together, such as choreographers, programmers, designers, and technicians. It is essential to ensure that everyone is on the same page with the concept and can work together seamlessly to create the desired result.
  • Accessibility: While technology has the potential to enhance the performance, it may not be equally accessible for all performers or audience members. For instance, virtual reality or holography may not be suitable for individuals with motion sickness or visual impairments. It is crucial to ensure that the technology used in the performance is accessible to everyone.
  • Integration: Integrating technology into the performance can be a challenging task, especially when it comes to getting the timing and motion right. The timing of the sound, lighting, and visuals need to be in sync with the performance, which requires a lot of rehearsal time and synchronization.
  • Relevance: Overuse of technology can sometimes overshadow the actual dance performance. It is essential to ensure that the technology complements the performance and does not become the central focus point. It needs to be relevant to the performance and serve a purpose in enhancing the audience’s experience.

These challenges emphasize the importance of extensive planning, coordination, and technical expertise while incorporating technology into contemporary dance performances. The benefits of incorporating technology can be great, but overcoming these challenges is crucial to ensure that it adds value to the performance and enhances the audience’s experience.

Future of Technology in Dance

As technology continues to advance at a rapid pace, it is interesting to speculate on what the future of technology in dance may look like. One area that is already being explored is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in choreography. AI has the potential to revolutionize the way that dance is created, as it can analyze movement and generate new ideas based on that analysis.

Another area that is likely to see continued development is virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR). As the technology becomes more accessible and affordable, it is likely that we will see more dance performances incorporating these technologies. This opens up a whole new world of creative possibilities, as dancers can interact with virtual objects and environments, and audiences can be fully immersed in the performance.

In terms of production design, we can expect to see continued advancements in lighting, set design, and sound design. The use of automation and robotics in these areas is also likely to increase, allowing for more complex and dynamic performances.

One potential challenge for the future of technology in dance is the potential for over-reliance on technology. While technology can enhance and augment dance performances, it should not replace the human element entirely. It is important to remember that dance is a fundamentally human art form and that technology should be used to support and enhance it rather than dominate it.

The future of technology in dance looks to be a promising and exciting one. As technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see new and innovative ways of incorporating it into dance performances, creating a whole new level of audience engagement and immersion.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the use of technology in contemporary dance performances has opened up a whole new world of possibilities for choreographers and production designers. It has allowed for more intricate and immersive experiences for audiences, as well as providing dancers with new tools to enhance their performances.

However, as with any new technology, there are also challenges that must be addressed. One major challenge is the cost of implementing these technologies, as well as the need for skilled technicians to operate and maintain them. Additionally, there is a risk of the technology overpowering the actual performance, making it more about the technology than the dance itself.

Despite these challenges, the future of technology in dance is exciting. As technology continues to advance, we can expect to see even more innovative ways of incorporating it into performances. The key will be striking a balance between utilizing technology to enhance the dance while still maintaining the integrity and purity of the art form.

Overall, it is clear that the use of technology in contemporary dance performances will continue to evolve and shape the future of dance. With the right balance and approach, technology can serve as a powerful tool for enhancing the beauty and emotion of dance performances, making them even more impactful and memorable for audiences around the world.

Preguntas frecuentes

What is motion-capture technology?

Motion-capture technology is a technique that allows the capture of physical movements and translates them into a digital format.

What is virtual reality?

Virtual reality is a computer-generated environment that can simulate a real or imagined world and allows the user to interact with it.

What is projection mapping?

Projection mapping is a technique that uses video projections to transform ordinary objects or surfaces into dynamic displays.

What are interactive costumes?

Interactive costumes are designed with technology that responds to the performers’ movements, creating visual effects or triggering sounds.

What are exoskeletons?

Exoskeletons are wearable devices that can enhance a performer’s physical capabilities, allowing them to move in new and unique ways.

What is augmented reality?

Augmented reality refers to the overlay of digital information onto the real world, creating a blended experience.

What is holography?

Holography is a technique that produces a three-dimensional image using laser technology.

What is laser projection?

Laser projection is a technique that uses lasers to create vibrant, high-contrast images or video onto a surface.

What are the benefits of using technology in dance performances?

Technology can enhance the audience’s engagement with the performance, provide new creative possibilities for choreographers, and increase the accessibility of dance.

What challenges can come with using technology in dance performances?

Challenges can include technical difficulties, high costs of equipment and maintenance, and potential distractions from the actual performance.

Referencias

Leave a Comment